WHAT IS CANNABIDIOL (CBD)?
Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the naturally occurring cannabinoids found in cannabis plants. It is a natural plant compound which is formed following decarboxylation from a cannabidiolic acid precursor, although it can also be produced synthetically.
In humans, CBD exhibits no effects indicative of any abuse or dependence potential. To date, there is no evidence of recreational use of CBD or any public health related problems associated with the use of pure CBD.
CBD has been demonstrated as an effective treatment of epilepsy in several clinical trials. There is also preliminary evidence that CBD may be a useful treatment for a number of other medical conditions.
CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile. Reported adverse effects may be as a result of drug-drug interactions between CBD and patients’ existing medications. As noted above, CBD does not produce the effects that are typically seen with cannabinoids such as THC. It also failed to produce significant effects in a human study of abuse potential.
WHAT ARE CANNABINOIDS
Cannabinoids are a group of 110+ naturally occurring compounds, including CBD (cannabidiol) and THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), that are produced by the cannabis plants, as well as the human endocannabinoid system (ECS). These compounds interact with cannabinoid receptors within the ECS to produce a variety of non-psychoactive and psychoactive effects. CBD and THC are primary cannabinoids whereas CBN and CBG are minor cannabinoids, each has varying therapeutic effects.
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM (ECS)
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a complex cell-signaling biological system composed of cannabinoid receptors, internal neurotransmitters (endocannabinoids) and cannabinoid receptor proteins expressed throughout the central nervous system (CB1) and peripheral nervous system (CB2). The ECS is active in regulating a range of functions involved in physiological and cognitive processes and contributes to the homeostasis of the body’s internal environment through modulation of immune, cardiovascular and reproductive systems. The ECS is linked to immunity, sleep, mood, learning and memory, appetite and digestion, metabolism, bone and muscle formation, skin and nerve function and motor control, and therefore plays a significant role in holistic health.
IS CBD LEGAL?
Hemp-derived CBD products (with less than 0.3 percent THC) are legal on the federal level in all 50 states and regulated under the 2018 Farm Bill. Marijuana-derived CBD products (which contain 0.4+ percent THC) are still considered illegal by the federal government. Prior to purchasing any CBD product, verify that it is third-party tested for potency. For more information regarding legality, it is encouraged that you consult with state’s laws and the local government of anywhere you travel to ensure your safety and regulatory compliance. Under the 2018 Farm Bill and Agricultural Improvement Act, hemp-derived CBD is not regulated as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Agency.
HEMP | MARIJUANA | CANNABIS
UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCE
Are Hemp and Marijuana the Same? No, but they are both part of the Cannabis family. Hemp is completely different from marijuana in its function, cultivation and application. Marijuana is used for medicinal or recreational purposes. Hemp is used in a variety of other applications. These include supplements, skin products, clothing, construction materials, paper products, sustainable fuel and food sources, and accessories . Overall, hemp is known to have over 25,000 possible applications in every industry from lumber to pharma.
Can You Get “High” Off Hemp? “Your lungs would fail before your brain attains any high from smoking industrial hemp” is a common response to this question.
The main difference is the chemical compositions, specifically in tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the chemical responsible for marijuana’s psychological effects. Marijuana contains anywhere from 5-20% THC content on average. "Premium" marijuana can have up to 25-30% THC. Hemp has a max THC level of 0.3%, essentially making it impossible to feel any psychoactive effect or get a “high”. Hemp also has high cannabidiol (CBD) content that is scientifically proven to act as THC’s antagonist.
How Hemp got grouped in with Marijuana and made illegal, until 20 December 2018 thanks to the 2018 Farm Bill. President Nixon declares war on cannabis. In the 1970s, President Nixon declared a “War on Drugs” and signed into law the United States Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (US CSA). This law established a set of banned drugs and created the Drug Enforcement Administration (DE A). It also unintentionally outlawed one of the world’s oldest domesticated crop, hemp. This not only led to the demise of hemp, but also an increased misconception of the plant.
In the Controlled Substances Act (CSA), hemp was grouped with marijuana and made illegal to grow in the US. This unfortunately classified hemp as a drug even though it doesn’t include high enough amounts of THC to have the "high" psychoactive effects, which is why Marijuana is classified as a drug. The 2018 Farm Bill was signed on 20 December 2018 and permanently removed hemp from the CSA.
According to the Federal Government, industrial hemp includes the plant Cannabis Sativa L. and any part or derivative with a THC concentration of no more than 0.3 percent on a dry weight basis. (81 FR 53395)
0.3% is the magic number laid out by Section 7606 of the Farm Bill, all CBD products manufactured by UnCanna are derived from crops grown in accordance with Section 7606 of the Farm Bill.
Trace amounts of THC are not enough to cause intoxication, even if large amounts are ingested. CBD from hemp provides endocannabinoid system support without the high of marijuana.
HOW DOES CBD WORK?
THE ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM
Your Endocannabinoid System is a network of messengers and receptors that regulate the way your body functions, a communication system between your body and brain. The messengers, called cannabinoids, bind with the receptors located throughout your body.
The cannabinoids made in your body are called endocannabinoids. Although your body creates cannabinoids (2-AG and anandamide) as needed, they are quickly broken down by enzymes and that is where CBD can benefit you.
Like a daily vitamin, CBD supplements the endocannabinoid system, which plays a vital role in optimal human performance.
The Endocannabinoid System regulates: Sleep, Appetite, Mood, Motor Control, Immune Function, Pleasure, Pain, Reproduction, Fertility, Memory, and Temperature.
CBD may also interact with the endocannabinoid system through indirect mechanisms such as enhanced action of the endogenous cannabinoid ligand anandamide. This results from blockade of anandamide reuptake and the inhibition of its enzymatic degradation.
CBD has been shown to modulate several non-endocannabinoid signaling systems. It is not clear which, if any, of these mechanisms are responsible for any of CBD’s potential clinical or other effects. Some of these mechanism include: Inhibition of adenosine uptake, possibly resulting in indirect agonist activity at adenosine receptors. Enhanced activity at the 5-HT1a receptor. Enhanced activity at glycine receptor subtypes Blockade of the orphan G-protein-coupled receptor GPR55.
IS CBD SAFE TO USE?
SOURCE: World Health Organization
"CBD does not produce the effects that are typically seen with cannabinoids such as THC. It also failed to produce significant effects in a human study of abuse potential discussed below. Across a number of controlled and open label trials CBD of the potential therapeutic effects of CBD it is generally well tolerated, with a good safety profile."
KNOWN AND POTENTIAL SIDE EFFECTS OF CBD
- Effects on the immune system are unclear; there is evidence of immune suppression at higher concentrations, but immune stimulation may occur at lower concentrations.
- There is potential for CBD to be associated with drug interactions through inhibition of some cytochrome P450 enzymes, but it is not yet clear whether these effects occur at physiological concentrations.
- In contrast to THC, CBD has no effect on heart rate or blood pressure under normal conditions, but in animal models of stress it reduces heart rate and blood pressure.
- CBD is generally well tolerated with a good safety profile. Reported adverse effects may be as a result of drug-drug interactions between CBD and patients’ existing medications.
Cannabinol (CBN) is a minor cannabinoid, meaning there are very little amounts that naturally occur and it takes more hemp biomass to extract enough CBN to formulate various products hence why it is more expensive than CBD Isolate. CBN is known to help with sleep issues, and provide a physical effect that may relieve pain. Although third party lab results show No Detectable (ND) levels of THC in CBN products, they do contain a trace amount of Delta-8 THC and we would highly advise you DO NOT use CBN products if subjected to urinalyses screening for THC.
CBN has also shown potential as a treatment for sleep disorders, pain relief, and inflammation, among other medical benefits. For instance, in an analysis shared by Steep Hill Labs in 2017, researchers found that a 2.5-to-5 milligram dose of CBN was as effective as a 5-to-10 milligram dose of the pharmaceutical sedative diazepam.
DELTA-8 THC vs DELTA-9 THC
You know of THC, which is Delta-9 THC, but what about Delta-8 THC?
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-8-THC, Δ8-THC) is a psychoactive cannabinoid found in the Cannabis plant. It is an isomer of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC, Δ9-THC), the compound commonly known as THC. Delta-8 is a cannabis compound that has become popular because of its similarity to delta-9 THC, the main compound in cannabis that gets you high. Delta-8 has been growing in popularity, especially in states that have not yet legalized recreational marijuana use.
Delta-8 can give people a high, while not as potent as delta-9 THC. Consumers report many of the same effects as THC, such as euphoria, happiness, uplifting feelings, and relief from some symptoms including pain. Resulting in this “legal” drug acting like the illegal delta-9. Side effects may also be similar to those of THC, including dry mouth, red eyes, short-term memory loss, paranoia, and anxiety.
Since delta-8 is similar to delta-9 in chemical structure and the side effects it produces, delta-8 also responds to drug tests in the same way. Your body will retain its metabolites for some time. The metabolites produced by delta-8 are the same as those produced by delta-9 THC. The primary non-active metabolite that delta-8 THC gets reduced to in the body is 11-Nor-9-carboxy THC or THC-COOH. These lipid-soluble metabolites do not get flushed out of your body easily and can linger in the body like any other THC and may be detected by a drug test. As with all substances, the amount of time delta-8 will remain detectable varies from person to person. When testing a cross-reaction can occur with delta-8 and the THC strip on a rapid oral fluid drug test.
Colorado regulators banned hemp-derived THC isomers such as delta-8 in foods, drinks and dietary supplements. A notice issued by the Colorado health department says that “chemically modifying or converting any naturally occurring cannabinoids from industrial hemp is non-compliant with the statutory definition of ‘industrial hemp product.’”
UnCanna does not manufacture or sell Delta-8 THC, although trace amounts naturally occur in Cannabinol (CBN) products, which we do manufacture and sell.
VARIOUS CBD TERMINOLOGY
It is important to understand the varieties and uses of the term "CBD". CBD is the abbreviation for Cannabidiol, technically. However, your CBD product could be Full Spectrum, Broad Spectrum, or Isolate. Also, there are "hemp oils" available such as the ones you see on Walmart shelves and although they are a healthy food source, it is not the CBD oil you are looking for. There are many different terms thrown around by companies in the industry, to include "phytocannabinoid rich hemp extract", "hemp extract", and simply "CBD oil" or "hemp supplement".
The important thing is to determine whether you want to use THC-Free (Isolate/Broad Spectrum) or Whole Plant (Full Spectrum) products, then verify the potency and purity of that product via certificates of analyses from third-party labs, verify the industry standards we previously discussed here, and then place an order. We suggest adjusting your dosing and trying different types/brands to find what works best for your needs.